05-31-08

Solar Powered Air Conditioner.


AMMONIA REFRIGERATION UNIT
The unit charge consists of ammonia, water, and hydrogen.


Anhydrous Ammonia means ammonia without water, Aqua Ammonia is a solution of ammonia and water which is used in refrigeration and air conditioners that are not a vapor compression type.

Vapor compression systems use compressors to compress the ammonia vapor. Absorption type systems do not use a compressor but instead use a generator.


The Intermittent absorption system uses a generator charged with water and ammonia. A heat source, usually a kerosene flame, heats this solution in the generator. The ammonia is vaporized and driven off.

A condenser, at the top of the system, condenses the ammonia vapor into a liquid. The liquid flows by gravity into the liquid receiver shown above and then into the evaporator. During the generating cycle, little or no refrigerating effect is taking place. As the system cools, the pressure drops, causing the liquid ammonia in the evaporator to boil (flash off) and absorb heat. The cycle is completed when vaporized ammonia is re-absorbed in the Aqua ammonia solution in the generator.

The forced air is generated by the sun (solar) to produce a forced air condition. This system would be very energy efficient. The solar rays to drive this unit will be the strongest during the actual time of use. A battery back up system would allow you a cooling effect through the evening. This system could be made into an AC or DC system just by adding a convertor.


Air-conditioning is the dominating energy consuming service in buildings in many countries. In many regions in Europe the demand for cooling and dehumidification of indoor air is growing due to increasing cooling loads. Conventional cooling technologies exhibit several clear disadvantages: their operation demands a high energy consumption; they cause high electricity peak loads; they significantly contribute to the Greenhouse effect (induced CO2 emissions resulting from the production of electricity) and they generally employ refrigerants that have several negative environmental impacts (global warming, ozone depletion).This project addresses these problems by development and integration of the necessary technologies for utilisation of solar energy for air conditioning of buildings. The industrial target is to develop and demonstrate a new air-cooled solar-driven NH3-H20 absorption system for air-conditioning and other cooling applications, with a capacity of 10 - 50 kW, using a compound parabolic collector and a gas-driven back-up system.

The pressure in the system drops as the water cools and absorbs ammonia vapor. Liquid ammonia (Light Blue) flows into the evaporator, begins to evaporate, and cools it.
Evaporated ammonia (Aqua Blue) flows back through the tube (B). It is again absorbed by the water in the generator. Refrigeration continues, usually until the next firing of the kerosene burner.
The small restrictor perform two functions, it allows the liquid to enter the evaporator at a controlled level. This protects the evaporator from getting flooded.
The restrictor also acts as a expansion valve which greats a pressure differential.
A pressure differential is essential to the refrigeration cycle as it causes the liquid ammonia to change it's boiling point from a high pressure flash of temperature to a lower pressure flash off temperature.
Without this change in pressures the refrigeration would not be performed and the system would simply act as an ammonia container.

This type of refrigerating system is quite simple. The piping is welded steel because the pressures on the generating cycle are quite high. The refrigerating ability is quite good. Kerosene flame heated absorption refrigerators are popular in areas where electric power is not available.

Other means of firing the burner can be propane or natural gas. Many RV unit refrigerators use a combination of propane fired burners and add a small 12 volt fan assembly to improve cooling within the evaporator section of the refrigerator (Ice Box).. Many types of absorption systems are on the market these days and are not limited to small appliances. The theory can and has been applied to very large commercial systems and perform in much the same manner.

Most small RV type refrigerators are not field repairable due to the critical charge ( The right amount of Aqua Ammonia ) and the nature of the system construction. If a small unit develops a leak, the best thing to do is replace it with a new one. Most manufacturers design the units to last for a very long time, but a damaged unit should be replaced (Leaking). Most Aqua Ammonia leaks are easy to find as are Anhydrous Ammonia leaks the smell is very strong and aids in detecting even the smallest of leaks.





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